Figure 0.1: Source: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christine_Darden#/media/File:Christine_Darden.jpg. Credit: NASA.
Figure 0.2: (a) Source: Peter Bright, “Moore’s Law Really Is Dead This Time,” Ars Technica, February 10, 2016, https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2016/02/moores-law-really-is-dead-this-time/. Credit: Gordon Moore. (b) Source: https://twitter.com/TamyEmmaPepin/status/1116014974508371971. Credit: Tamy Emma Pepin / Twitter.
Figure 0.3: (a) Source: Stephanie Dinkins, Not the Only One, multimedia installation, 2017. (b) Source: Ishan Misra, C. Lawrence Zitnick, Margaret Mitchell, and Ross Girshick, “Seeing through the Human Reporting Bias: Visual Classifiers from Noisy Human-centric Labels,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (New York: IEEE, 2016), 2930–2939; and Margaret Mitchell, “The Seen and Unseen Factors Influencing Machine Perception of Images and Language,” LinkedIn SlideShare, May 19, 2017, https://www.slideshare.net/SessionsEvents/margaret-mitchell-senior-research-scientist-google-at-mlonf-seattle-2017. (c) Source: Hanah Anderson and Matt Daniels, “Film Dialogue,” Pudding, April 2016, accessed April 3, 2019, https://pudding.cool/2017/03/film-dialogue/.
Figure 1.1: Source: https://www.facebook.com/SerenaWilliams/videos/10156086135726834/. Credit: Serena Williams/Facebook.
Figure 1.2: Source: Data from Christianne Corbett and Catherine Hill, Solving the Equation: The Variables for Women’s Success in Engineering and Computing (Washington, DC: American Association of University Women, 2015). Credit: Graphic by Catherine D’Ignazio.
Figure 1.3: Credit: Courtesy of Joy Buolamwini.
Figure 1.4: Credit: Photo by Brandon Schulman.
Figure 1.5: (a) Source: https://feminicidiosmx.crowdmap.com/. (b) Source: https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?mid=174IjBzP-fl_6wpRHg5pkGSj2egE&ll=21.347609098250942%2C-102.05467709375&z=5. Credit: María Salguero.
Figure 1.6: Source: Andrew Pole, “How Target Gets the Most out of Its Guest Data to Improve Marketing ROI,” filmed October 2010 at Predictive Analytics World, video, 47:50, https://www.predictiveanalyticsworld.com/patimes/how-target-gets-the-most-out-of-its-guest-data-to-improve-marketing-roi/6815/.
Figure 1.7: Source: Networked Nation: The Landscape of the Internet in America, exhibit, 2013, Center for Land Use Interpretation. Credit: Images by the Center for Land Use Interpretation.
Figure 1.8: Credit: Kimberly Seals Allers and the Irth team.
Figure 2.1: Source: Gwendolyn Warren, “About the Work in Detroit,” in Field Notes No. 3: The Geography of Children, Part II (East Lansing, MI: Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute, 1971). Credit: Courtesy of Gwendolyn Warren and the Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute.
Figure 2.2: Source: Robert K. Nelson, LaDale Winling, Richard Marciano, Nathan Connolly, et al., “Mapping Inequality,” in American Panorama, ed. Robert K. Nelson and Edward L. Ayers, accessed May 13, 2019, https://dsl.richmond.edu/panorama/redlining/#loc=10/42.3475/-83.1365&opacity=0.8&city=detroit-mi.
Figure 2.3: Source: Julia Angwin, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu, and Lauren Kirchner, “Machine Bias,” ProPublica, May 23, 2016, https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing. Credit: Courtesy of Julia Angwin, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu, and Lauren Kirchner for ProPublica, 2016.
Figure 2.4: Credit: Courtesy of the City Digits Project Team, including Brooklyn College, the Civic Data Design Lab at MIT, and the Center for Urban Pedagogy.
Figure 2.5: Credit: Courtesy of the City Digits Project Team, including Brooklyn College, the Civic Data Design Lab at MIT, and the Center for Urban Pedagogy.
Figure 2.6: Source: http://184.108.40.206/locallotto#tours-tab. Credit: Courtesy of Emmanuela, Angel, Robert, and Janeva. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DRL-1222430.
Figure 3.1: Source: “United States Gun Death Data Visualization by Periscopic,” Periscopic, 2013, accessed March 12, 2019, https://guns.periscopic.com/?year=2013. Credit: Images by Periscopic.
Figure 3.2: Source: Christopher Ingraham, “FBI: Active Shooter Incidents Have Soared since 2000,” Washington Post, June 16, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/06/16/fbi-active-shooter-incidents-have-soared-since-2000/?utm_term=.036515c11720. Credit: Images by Christopher Ingraham for the Washington Post.
Figure 3.3: (a) Source: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, A Chronological History of the United States (New York: Sheldon, Blakeman & Company, 1856). (b) Source: Lauren Klein, Caroline Foster, Adam Hayward, Erica Pramer, and Shivani Negi, The Shape of History, 2016, http://shape of history.net/#explore=. (c) Credit: Image by Courney Allen for the Georgia Tech Digital Humanities Lab.
Figure 3.4: Source: Mike Bostock, Shan Carter, Amanda Cox, and Kevin Quealy, “One Report, Diverging Perspectives,” New York Times, October 5, 2012, https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/10/05/business/economy/one-report-diverging-perspectives.html; as cited in Jonathan Stray, The Curious Journalist’s Guide to Data (New York: Columbia Journalism School, 2016).
Figure 3.5: Source: Do Women Have to Be Naked to Get into the Met. Museum?, 1989, accessed March 13, 2019, https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.139856.html. Credit: Guerrilla Girls.
Figure 3.6: Source: “Violin Plot,” Data Visualisation Catalogue, accessed March 13, 2019, https://datavizcatalogue.com/methods/violin_plot.html.
Figure 3.7: Source: Gregor Aisch, Nate Cohn, Amanda Cox, Josh Katz, Adam Pearce, and Kevin Quealy, “Live Presidential Forecast,” New York Times, November 9, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/elections/2016/forecast/president.
Figure 3.8: Source: Gregor Aisch, Nate Cohn, Amanda Cox, Josh Katz, Adam Pearce, and Kevin Quealy, “Live Presidential Forecast,” New York Times, November 9, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/elections/2016/forecast/president.
Figure 3.9: Source: Margaret Wickens Pearce, Coming Home to Indigenous Place Names in Canada, Canadian-American Center, 2018, accessed March 13, 2019, https://umaine.edu/canam/publications/coming-home-map/. Credit: Map by Margaret W. Pearce; map design copyright 2017 Canadian-American Center, University of Maine. Place names shared by permission of the following: Alan Corbiere. Hiio Delaronde and Jordan Engel, “Haudenosaunee Country in Mohawk,” The Decolonial Atlas, decolonialatlas.wordpress.com/2015/02/04/haudenosaunee-country-in-mohawk-2/, by permission of the authors; Charles Lippert and Jordan Engel, “The Great Lakes: An Ojibwe Perspective,” The Decolonial Atlas, decolonialatlas.wordpress.com/2015/04/14/the-great-lakes-in-ojibwe-v2/, by permission of the authors; Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg; Brian McInnes, Sounding Thunder: The Stories of Francis Pegahmagabow (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2016), by permission of Brian McInnes, with gratitude to James Dumont and Wasauksing First Nation; Woodland Cultural Centre, place names from Frances Froman, Alfred Keye, Lottie Keye, and Carrie Dyck, English-Cayuga/Cayuga-English Dictionary (Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press); and Marianne Mithun and Reginald Henry, Wadewayęstanih. A Cayuga Teaching Grammar (Brantford, Ontario: Woodland Publishing, The Woodland Cultural Centre, 1984), by permission of Amos Key Jr. and Carrie Dyck.
Figure 4.1: Source: Joni Seager, The Women’s Atlas, 5th ed. (Oxford: Penguin Books, 2018).
Figure 4.2: (a) Source: Will Oremus, “Here Are All the Different Genders You Can Be on Facebook,” Slate, February 13, 2014, http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2014/02/13/facebook_custom_gender_options_here_are_all_56_custom_options.html. (b) Source: http://www.facebook.com/. Credit: Facebook. Screenshot by Lauren F. Klein.
Figure 4.3: Source: http://www.facebook.com/. Credit: Facebook. Screenshot by Lauren Klein.
Figure 4.4: Source: Jan Diehm and Amber Thomas, “Someone Clever Once Said Women Were Not Allowed Pockets,” The Pudding, August 2018, https://pudding.cool/2018/08/pockets/.
Figure 4.5: Source: Peter Kirwin, “Clinical Outcomes and Experiences of Trans People Accessing HIV Care in England,” BHIVA, accessed August 30, 2019, https://www.bhiva.org/file/5ca62e5cf0828/PeterKirwanO22.pdf.
Figure 4.6: Source: “Born Equal. Treated Unequally,” infographic, Telegraph, accessed August 30, 2019, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/business/women-mean-business-interactive/. Credit: Claire Cohen, Patrick Scott, Ellie Kempster, Richard Moynihan, Oliver Edgington, Dario Verrengia, Fraser Lyness, George Ioakeimidis, and Jamie Johnson for the Telegraph.
Figure 4.7: Source: Sam Morris, Juweek Adolphe, and Erum Salam, “Does the New Congress Reflect You?,” Guardian, June 7, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2018/nov/15/new-congress-us-house-of-representatives-senate.
Figure 4.8: Source: Amanda Montañez, “Visualizing Sex as a Spectrum,” Scientific American, August 29, 2017, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/sa-visual/visualizing-sex-as-a-spectrum/. Research by Amanda Hobbs; expert review by Amy Wisniewski University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Reproduced with permission. Copyright 2017 Scientific American. Credit: Pitch Interactive and Amanda Montañez. Reproduced with permission. Copyright © (2017) Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Figure 4.9: Source: Eve M. Kahn, “Colored Conventions, a Rallying Point for Black Americans before the Civil War,” New York Times, August 4, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/05/arts/design/colored-conventions-a-rallying-point-for-black-americans-before-the-civil-war.html. Credit: Sketched by Theo. R. Davis, published in Harper’s Weekly, 1869. Image courtesy of Jim Casey.
Figure 4.10: Credit: Photo by Rebecca Rodriguez and Ken Richardson, MIT Media Lab.
Figure 5.1: Source: “Tech Bus Stops and No-Fault Evictions,” Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, accessed August 30, 2019, http://www.antievictionmappingproject.net/techbusevictions.html. Credit: Anti-Eviction Mapping Project.
Figure 5.2: Source: “Narratives of Displacement and Resistance,” Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, accessed August 30, 2019, http://www.antievictionmappingproject.net/narratives.html. Credit: Anti-Eviction Mapping Project. Made in collaboration with the San Francisco Ruth Assawa School of the Arts. The interview was shot by Marianne Maeckelbergh and Brandon Jourdan and edited by students Shilo Arkinson and Avidan Novogrodsky-Godt, facilitated by Alexandra Lacey and Jin Zhu.
Figure 5.3: Source: Data from www.mediacloud.org. Credit: Image by Catherine D’Ignazio.
Figure 5.4: Source: Catherine D’Ignazio. Original article: Eric Roston and Blacki Miglozzi, “What’s Really Warming the World?,” Bloomberg Businessweek, June 24, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-whats-warming-the-world. Credit: Catherine D’Ignazio, based on reporting by Eric Roston and Blacki Migliozzi for Bloomberg Businessweek.
Figure 5.5: Source: Eymund Diegel, “Mapping Sewage Flows in the Gowanus Canal after Sandy Flood Damages—the Sequel,” Public Lab, December 19, 2012, https://publiclab.org/notes/eymund-diegel/12-18-2012/mapping-sewage-flows-gowanus-canal-after-sandy-flood-damages-sequel. Credit: Eymund Diegel for Public Lab.
Figure 5.6: Credit: Data Therapy, Emily and Rahul Bhargava.
Figure 5.7: Source: Rahul Bhargava, “Mural-ing Our Way to Data Literacy,” MIT Civic Media, August 6, 2013, https://civic.mit.edu/2013/08/06/mural-ing-our-way-to-data-literacy/. Credit: Data Therapy, Emily and Rahul Bhargava.
Figure 5.8: Source: Screenshot from https://ejatlas.org/. Credit: Global Atlas of Environmental Justice.
Figure 6.1: Source: Mona Chalabi, “Kidnapping of Girls in Nigeria Is Part of a Worsening Problem,” FiveThirtyEight, May 6, 2014, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/nigeria-kidnapping/.
Figure 6.2: Source: Erin Simpson (@charlie_simpson), “So if #GDELT says there were 649 kidnappings in Nigeria in 4 months, WHAT IT’S REALLY SAYING is there were 649 news stories abt kidnappings,” Twitter, May 13, 2014, 4:04 p.m., https://twitter.com/charlie_simpson/status/466308105416884225; and Erin Simpson (@charlie_simpson), “And never, EVER use #GDELT for reporting of discrete events. That’s not what it’s for. Not kidnappings, not murders, not suicide bombings,” Twitter, May 13, 2014, 1:15 p.m., https://twitter.com/charlie_simpson/status/466310866225217536.
Figure 6.3: Source: Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo: e-negocios cidadesp, accessed August 30, 2019, http://e-negocioscidadesp.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/. Credit: SIGRC for the Prefecture of São Paulo, Brazil.
Figure 6.4: Source: Patrick Torphy, Michaela Halnon, and Jillian Meehan, “Reporting Sexual Assault: What the Clery Act Doesn’t Tell Us,” Atavist, April 26, 2016, https://cleryactfallsshort.atavist.com/reporting-sexual-assault-what-the-clery-act-doesnt-tell-us. Credit: Used with permission of Patrick Torphy, Michaela Halnon, and Jillian Meehan.
Figure 6.5: Source: Lauren F. Klein, “The Image of Absence: Archival Silence, Digital Humanities, and James Hemings,” American Literature 85, no. 4 (2013): 661–688. Credit: Visualization by Lauren F. Klein.
Figure 6.6: Source: Data from Fatos Kaba et al., “Disparities in Mental Health Referral and Diagnosis in the New York City Jail Mental Health Service,” American Journal of Public Health 105, no. 9 (2015): 1911–1916, https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302699. Credit: Graphics by Catherine D’Ignazio.
Figure 6.7: Source: Data from Kaba et al., “Disparities in Mental Health Referral and Diagnosis in the New York City Jail Mental Health Service.” Credit: Graphic by Catherine D’Ignazio.
Figure 7.1: Source: https://github.com/GeorgiaTechDHLab/TOME/graphs/contributors; https://github.com/GeorgiaTechDHLab/TOME/graphs/commit-activity; and https://github.com/GeorgiaTechDHLab/TOME/network. Credit: GitHub/Screenshots by Lauren F. Klein.
Figure 7.2: Source: https://www.shipmap.org/. Credit: Website created by Duncan Clark & Robin Houston from Kiln. Data compiled by Julia Schaumeier & Tristan Smith from the UCL EI. The website also includes a soundtrack: Bach’s Goldberg Variations, played by Kimiko Ishizaka.
Figure 7.3: Source: “Wages for Housework,” Harvard Library archival materials, accessed August 30, 2019, https://hollisarchives.lib.harvard.edu/repositories/8/archival_objects/1438878. Credit: Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute/Bettye Lane.
Figure 7.4: Source: Still from Workers Leaving the Googleplex, dir. Andrew Norman Wilson, video, 12:00. Credit: Andrew Norman Wilson.
Figure 7.5: Source: Kate Crawford and Vladan Joler, “Anatomy of an AI System: The Amazon Echo as an Anatomical Map of Human Labor, Data and Planetary Resources,” AI Now Institute and Share Lab, September 7, 2018, https://anatomyof.ai. Credit: Kate Crawford and Vladan Joler.
Figure 7.6: Source: J. K. Gibson-Graham and the Community Economies Collective, Cultivating Community Economies, Next System Project, February 27, 2017, https://thenextsystem.org/cultivating-community-economies. Credit: J. K. Gibson-Graham, Jenny Cameron, Kelly Dombrowski, Stephen Healy, and Ethan Miller for the Next System Project.
Figure 7.7: Source: “A Brief Visual History of MARC Cataloging at the Library of Congress,” Sapping Attention (blog), May 16, 2017, http://sappingattention.blogspot.com/2017/05/a-brief-visual-history-of-marc.html. Credit: Benjamin M. Schmidt.
Figure 7.8: Source: “Chantal’s Household,” Atlas of Caregiving, accessed August 30, 2019, https://atlasofcaregiving.com/studies/chantals-household/chantal/24-hour/. Credit: The Atlas of Caregiving.
Figure 7.9: Source: Giorgia Lupi, “Bruises—The Data We Don’t See,” Medium: Neuroscience, January 31, 2018, https://medium.com/@giorgialupi/bruises-the-data-we-dont-see-1fdec00d0036. Credit: Giorgia Lupi and Kaki King.
Figure 8.1: Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Google_Walkout_For_Real_Change_in_Sunnyvale,_November_1_2018.jpg. License: Creative Commons Attribution—Share Alike 4.0 International. Credit: Wikimedia user Grendelkhan.
Figure 8.2: Credit: Columbia Center for Spatial Research, 2016.
Figure 8.3: Source: Margaret Mitchell, Simone Wu, Andrew Zaldivar, Parker Barnes, Lucy Vasserman, Ben Hutchinson, Elena Spitzer, Inioluwa Deborah Raji, and Timnit Gebru, “Model Cards for Model Reporting,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (New York: ACM, 2019), 220–229.
Figure 8.4: Credit: Economía Femini(s)ta, 2017, http://economiafeminita.com/, including Mercedes D’Alessandro, Andrés Snitcofsky, Lina Castellanos, Aldana Vales, and the Economía Femini(s)ta team.
Figure 8.5: Source: Ron Morrison and Treva Ellison, Decoding Possibilities, multimedia installation, 2017, https://elegantcollisions.com/decoding-possibilities/. Credit: Ron Morrison and Treva Ellison.
Credit: Indigenous Women Rising.
Credit: Charis Circle.